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Source
 
OVERVIEW
The Elder Scrolls Online v2.7.3 includes some additional balance tweaks and bug fixes for combat, in addition to numerous fixes surrounding the player housing system. We do have a number of known issues relating to grouping and sitting in chairs, which will be addressed before this update goes live. The size of this patch is approximately 540MB.
 
KNOWN ISSUES
Combat & Gameplay
Grouping
  • You currently are not able to form groups of more than four players.
 
Housing
General
  • When sitting in chairs outside of player homes, you may run into the following issues:
    • You may pop up suddenly or awkwardly when using an emote from a chair.
    • You may appear as if you are stuck inside the chair when you stand up.
    • You may appear like you are standing next to other player characters when you are, in fact, sitting.
  • When in the Housing Editor, you can sit in a freshly-placed chair (with the issues above), but existing chairs or chairs that are edited again after fresh placement may stop working. You will get the prompt to interact, but will not actually sit.
 
FIXES & IMPROVEMENTS, BASE GAME PATCH
Art & Animation
Animation
  • You will now consistently see the fast travel animation after you are dismounted from your mount.
 
Figure
  • Khajiit claws will now remain visible when equipping Yokudan medium bracers.
  • Toe claws on Khajiit and Argonian player characters will no longer clip through Dark Brotherhood medium armor sets.
 
Combat & Gameplay
General
  • Fixed an issue where the friendly heal from some abilities (Rite of Passage, Blood Craze, etc.) could be dodged.
  • Fixed an issue where weapon swapping to change to an item set or ability set that that granted Max Health, Stamina, or Magicka was causing unintended drops in resources.
  • Fixed an issue if your character died or received fall damage, you would occasionally become locked out from all ability usage until you reloaded that character.
  • Experience boosting holiday abilities will now overwrite one another. This means you will only ever have one such ability active on you at a time.
  • All experience increasing abilities' durations will not continue to tick down while you are offline. If you log out with time remaining on a character, that time will remain when you log back in with that character.
 
Dragonknight
  • Draconic Power
    • Coagulating Blood (Dragon Blood morph):
      • This morph now heals for a flat value (scaling with Spell Damage and Max Magicka), with that heal being increased by up to 33% based on your missing health.
      • Coagulating Blood: This morph no longer grants the Minor Vitality buff.
        • Known Issue: Ranks II and IV are not currently gaining a bonus to healing based on your missing health.
    • Green Dragon Blood (Dragon Blood morph): This morph now grants the Minor Vitality buff as well as Minor Endurance.
 
Developer Comments
After evaluating Coagulating Blood on the PTS, we have made further changes to ensure the heal from this morph is more reliable. It now heals for a flat value scaling with your Magicka-based stats, but still retains the gameplay flavor of being an ability you want to activate when you’re at low health. This should make it a very potent option for Magicka-based Dragonknights. To counterbalance this, we moved the Minor Vitality buff to Green Dragon Blood to ensure that Health-based Dragonknights also have a strong morph option as well.
 
  • Dragon Leap: This ability and its morphs can now be cast while are you immobilized.
 
Developer Comments
We recently fixed a bug where Dragon Leap was not preventing you from being crowd controlled or immobilized mid-leap, but we have further improved this ability by making it so previously applied immobilizations are now removed when you initiate the leap. Since this is an Ultimate ability, we want its activation to be more reliable compared to other charge or leap abilities.
 
Nightblade
  • Assassination
    • Impale (Assassin’s Blade morph): Increased the range of this morph to 28 meters at Rank IV from 18 meters.
 
Developer Comments
Increasing the range on this morph to 28 meters matches the range of other Magicka Nightblade damage abilities such as Strife or Cripple, and makes this morph work cohesively with a ranged ability kit.
 
Templar
  • Aedric Spear
    • Binding Javelin (Piercing Javelin morph): Fixed an issue where Rank III of this morph had a 20 meter range instead of a 28 meter range.
    • Focused Charge: Increased the speed of the animation played by this ability and its morphs.
 
Developer Comments
Since there is already a waiting period on charge abilities as you move to close the gap, we have increased the speed of the “leaping stab” animation that happens once you finally reach your target. This should make Focused Charge feel more responsive, allowing you to more fluidly transition into other abilities after completing the charge.
 
  • Dawn’s Wrath
    • Backlash:
      • The initial damage and final damage dealt by this ability and its morphs can no longer be blocked.
      • Fixed an issue where the final damage dealt by this ability and its morphs was not being reduced by Battle Spirit.
 
Developer Comments
Making Backlash unblockable ensures it behaves consistently when compared to Daedric Cruse, as both those abilities are similar in functionality and how they thematically apply their damage. This also ensures that Backlash is not double penalized by block, since most of the damage it copies will likely be blocked or avoided by enemies seeking to minimize your Backlash’s final attack.
 
Guild
  • Mages Guild
    • Magelight: Fixed an issue where the permanent Major Prophecy buff from this ability and its morphs was removing other temporary sources of Major Prophecy.
 
Crafting & Economy
General
  • Fixed an issue where your game could crash when crafting items with a mix of stolen- and non-stolen items.
  • An ore node north of the Quendeluun Wayshrine in Auridon was previously buried too deep to be seen, but could still be mined. The ore node has now been moved to the surface, where it can be both seen and mined with greater ease.
  • Fixed an issue that caused Orzorga's Red Frothgar to appear twice in the Brew tab of Provisioning stations.
 
Alliance War
  • Updated the prices on the War Enchanter's offerings to make them less enticing as a way to convert Alliance Points into gold.
 
Master Writs
  • Fixed an issue that prevented Provisioning Master Writs from being turned in.
  • Target Skeletons now stack to 200 in the inventory. That's a lot of skeletons!
  • Added a higher-health Target Skeleton to Rolis Hlaalu's store: the Robust Target Skeleton. This Target Skeleton makes a better target for those who want to evaluate larger skeleton damage sums over long periods of time.
  • Rolis Hlaalu now sells an envelope that, when opened, will provide a random purple Furnishing Plan.
  • Rolis Hlaalu can now be found in a more prominent location when in Wayrest.
  • Adjusted the drop chance calculations for Master Writs from Clothiering, Blacksmithing, and Woodworking.
    • These previously evaluated against all of these skills at once. Now, they only look at your long-term mastery of their own research information when determining your chance of receiving a Master Writ.
  • Increased the Writ Voucher yield for Akaviri-style items from Master Writs by 10%, and for Orzorga's Smoked Bear Haunch and Psijic Ambrosia by 25%.
  • Fixed a minor typo in the text for Sealed Clothier Writs.
  • Corrected some text issues that may lead to you encountering SUDDEN SHOUTING or unusual_behaviour from Master Writs in your quest journal.
 
Crown Store & Crown Crates
General
  • Crown Crates can now be accessed while sitting in a chair.
  • Fixed a keybinding issue that could occur in the Crown Crates menu when toggling Gamepad Mode on and off.
  • The Crown Store will no longer always be locked the first time you open it.
 
Personalities
  • Props will now be properly hidden when harvesting with a Personality equipped.
 
Dungeons & Group Content
Dungeons
  • City of Ash
    • The Central Barricade will once again open, allowing you to progress through the dungeon.
 
Exploration & Itemization
General
  • Fixed an issue that could cause your camera to briefly zoom in after standing up from a chair.
  • Improved the positioning of your character when sitting in certain chairs.
 
Item Sets
  • Desert Rose: Increased this item set’s proc chance to 15% from 10%, but also increased its cooldown to 4 seconds from 1 second.
 
Developer Comments
Due to this item set having a low cooldown, the Magicka restored by its proc was very high in situations where you were taking lots of incoming hits every second. Increasing the cooldown but also increasing the proc chance maintains the current level of Magicka returns when you are taking one hit every second, but keeps it from being extremely overpowered when you were taking multiple hits every second. The Magicka returns of this set will still remain higher than any other item set in heavy combat situations.
 
Housing
General
  • Fixed an issue where pets and assistants wouldn't display their idle animations correctly when placed in a home.
    • Note: We are still working on instances where some mounts are not displaying their idle animations correctly.
  • After fighting a Target Skeleton, you will now get a report via the chat log indicating your damage per second as well as the length of the fight.
  • Increased the chance to receive furnishing-related rewards from criminal activities like pickpocketing and murder.
  • Granting a guild Visitor or Decorator privileges will now correctly allow guildmates from that guild to visit your primary residence.
  • If you set access rights to your home for an individual, those rights will now always be used preferentially, even if you are also in a guild with that person.
  • All homes now load the Unfurnished version by default when previewed. You may swap between the Furnished/Unfurnished versions exactly as before when desired.
  • You will no longer be able to jump to homes from the Imperial City.
  • Collision for assistants in homes now behaves more like NPC collision outside of homes: you can't walk through them or stand on them, but you can dodge through them.
  • Fixed an issue where mounts and pets based on your alliance would always appear as Daggerfall when placed in your house. Now, every player sees them based on their alliance.
  • Fixed an issue that could cause you to fall through furnishings when logging back into your home.
  • Pirharri the Smuggler can now be used by visitors with "visitor access" to your home as long as they also have the Smuggler unlocked.
  • Improved the collision affecting a variety of houses that prevented you from selecting placed objects on a wall. The affected homes include:
    • Captain Margaux’s Place
    • Cyrodilic Jungle Home
    • Daggerfall Overlook
    • Gardener House
    • Kragenhome
    • The Rosy Lion Inn
 
Crown Store
  • Added approximately 250 furnishings to the Housing Editor's Crown tab. This includes a wide variety of items as well as non-set Crafting Stations.
  • Added several missing rocks and plants to the Purchase tab of the Housing Editor.
  • Removed the "Imperial Forge, Covered" from the Purchase tab of the Housing Editor.
  • Removed several duplicate items from the Purchase tab of the Housing Editor.
  • Fixed an issue after purchasing a home for crowns, you could trade the furnishings that came with it under certain circumstances.
 
Furnishers
  • Updated the pricing of furnishings from Home Goods Furnishers to improve overall consistency.
    • Please note that this is a work in progress, and some outliers still exist.
  • All furnishings in Cyrodiil are now sold for Alliance Points instead of gold.
  • Corrected unpredictable or incorrect dialog in the conversations of several Furnishers.
  • The map pin for High Road Woodworks in Belkarth no longer incorrectly claims that Heralda Garscroft has a storefront there.
 
Furnishings
  • Items now show whether they are interactable, sittable, readable, lights, animated, crafting stations, or target skeletons on the item tooltip.
  • Improved the naming and categorization of several furnishings to improve clarity.
  • Added unique icons to several furnishings that were using default icons, and resolved several cases of a furnishing or plan using the incorrect icon.
  • Removed excessive collision from many small plants and trees.
  • Updated several furnishings to improve the consistency of the interact prompts, and to remove interact prompts from furnishings that did not actually have an interaction.
  • Woodworking and Clothing stations in homes now use the proper animations.
  • Crafting stations can no longer be used if they are placed underwater.
  • Moving too far away from a crafting station will now cause you to exit the crafting interface.
  • Added French, German, and Japanese localized text to the new Undaunted Trophies.
  • Fixed an issue where the flame for the "Light and Shadow" achievement furnishing was displaying incorrectly.
  • Updated "Lantern, Hanging" and "Lantern, Dim" to animate when placed in a home. They gently sway now, as opposed to hanging rigidly in place.
  • Fixed an issue that could cause inactive crafting stations to briefly become interactable when you first logged into your home.
  • Adjusted several furnishings to ensure they default to the correct direction when you preview or place them.
  • Added unique flavor text to several Achievement Furnishings.
  • Fixed several issues where the smoke from censers and braziers would appear to float sideways if the furnishing was placed at an angle.
  • Added fix/repair interactions to the “Replica of Shattered Ansei Sword” achievement furnishing.
 
Furniture Crafting
  • Added several new crafting plans that weren’t previously represented in crafting.
  • Removed several crafting plans for smaller furnishings that weren’t quite ready for the spotlight.
  • Adjusted the quality of several furnishing plans to ensure they match the quality of the final product.
  • Updated the categorization of furniture crafting materials to prevent them from displaying when crafting non-furniture items.
  • Fixed several cases where the material costs for various recipes were incorrect. This includes the Target Skeleton, who once again requires the correct 206 bones to craft.
 
Homes
  • The list of Staple Homes in the Collections menu is now in alphabetical order when in Gamepad Mode.
  • Fixed an issue where several homes were not displaying proper images when at the House purchase screen.
  • Made minor adjustments to several homes to add lights, remove duplicate items, and resolve cases where objects were floating or clipping through other objects.
  • Added a tower to Ebonheart Chateau, overlooking the nearby lava. The door to this new addition can be accessed from the courtyard.
  • Updated the lighting in Earthtear Cavern to improve game performance.
  • Updated Hammerdeck's name and description in response to player feedback.
    • The new name is "Hammerdeath Bungalow".
    • The new description reads “‘It may be small, but at least it’s gloomy. And if you enjoy beating up on your friends, like I do, it’s right next door to the arena!’ –Goorguk gro-Murtag, Orcish Realtor”
    • Known Issue: Hammerdeath Bungalow is still listed as Hammerdeck End on its map pin.
  • Removed the Jester's Event trees from the Ebonheart Manor and replaced them with Autumn Cherry Trees.
 
Housing Editor
  • The glow that appears around housing objects when you hover your cursor over them is now much more noticeable.
  • Opening the Housing Editor while opening a container will now close the loot window for the container.
    • This resolves an issue that prevented the Housing Editor from working correctly when opened under these circumstances.
  • Fixed an issue that could cause placed furnishings to shift position slightly if you encountered a load screen while editing your home.
  • Fixed a rare issue that could cause objects to continually rotate while you tried to place them.
  • You can no longer enter the housing editor while in combat. If you enter combat while in the housing editor, it will now automatically exit the editor.
  • Fixed an issue where placing a piece of furniture multiple times without allowing it to regain its collision could leave it without collision.
  • Added a new "Honors and Awards" section to the Gallery category for PvP achievement furnishings.
  • Moved Bear non-combat pets from the Felines category to a new category for Bears. Because bears aren’t cats.
  • Lion and Senche mounts are now in the "Big Cats" subcategory instead of the "Wolves" subcategory.
 
Quests & Zones
Housing
  • A Friend in Need
    • A new item, the Friend in Need Housing Brochure, is now available on the Crown Store under Quest Starters that will grant this quest.
    • Additional bestowers of this quest are now present within or just outside of the banks of every major city in the Aldmeri Dominion, Daggerfall Covenant, and Ebonheart Pact.
    • The hint step pointing to the Home Goods Merchant now disappears after you acquire furniture from them, to minimize confusion after purchasing.
 
UI
General
  • Unbound keys within the keyboard UI will no longer display their gamepad replacements.
  • Fixed an issue where subcategories for collectibles incorrectly appeared in the Guild Trader UI.
  • Fixed an issue where the message for leaving a dueling area could continue to appear after the duel ended.
  • Achievement progress now refreshes correctly when viewing them as they update.
  • Fixed several issues with crafting tooltips and crafting sounds not playing.
  • Fixed an issue where item tooltips could incorrectly reflect the quantity of that item you actually have.
  • Fixed an issue where zone chat would not display correctly while on certain quest stages.
  • Fixed an issue that could occur when setting keybindings, where you would receive an error that a key was already bound to an action, without the error specifying which action.
 
Addons
  • Fixed an issue where your game could crash while placing furniture with the SaveHouse addon installed.
 
Housing
  • Previewing furniture will now take you to a preview environment where the camera will fully zoom out based on the size of the furniture.
    • Furniture can now also be previewed from crafting stations.
    • Known Issue: The preview environment is currently missing its final background asset.
  • Fixed an issue where opening the housing editor while in a loot window would break several parts of the housing editor.
  • Made slight modifications to the Purchase Options dialog within a House preview to make hiding the dialog easier.
  • The Housing Editor keybind will now hide if your character dies while in a house.
  • Fixed an issue where several homes were not displaying proper images on the Purchase Options dialog.
  • Added Population to the House Information panel. This communicates the current/maximum amount of player characters in your house.
  • Changed the keybind for Go to Safe Location to Go to Entrance.
  • Attempting to visit another player's primary residence when they do not have one set will now give a clearer error message.
  • The keybind for placing an item will now display at the bottom of the screen in the Housing Editor. This will also show how many of an item you have left to place when you have a stack greater than 1.
 
Gamepad Mode
  • Sound effects have returned to the inventory screen while in Gamepad Mode.
  • Fixed a UI error that could occur when viewing the contents of a bundle.
  • Fixed an issue in the Alchemy menu where the Alchemy Skill bar wouldn't appear when you gained inspiration in the skill line.
  • Fixed multiple issues in the Housing permissions screens where UI elements could overlap with each other.
  • Fixed an issue where you could be kicked for hitting the message rate limit while scrolling quickly through the Purchase tab in the Housing Editor.
 
Maps
  • Made several minor adjustments to maps to account for changes with Homestead.
submitted by dominoid73 to elderscrollsonline

Vault 7 - CIA Hacking Tools Revealed

Vault 7 - CIA Hacking Tools Revealed
March 07, 2017
from Wikileaks Website


https://preview.redd.it/9ufj63xnfdb41.jpg?width=500&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=46bbc937f4f060bad1eaac3e0dce732e3d8346ee

Press Release
Today, Tuesday 7 March 2017, WikiLeaks begins its new series of leaks on the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency.
Code-named "Vault 7" by WikiLeaks, it is the largest ever publication of confidential documents on the agency.
The first full part of the series, "Year Zero", comprises 8,761 documents and files from an isolated, high-security network situated inside the CIA's Center for Cyber Intelligence (below image) in Langley, Virgina.
It follows an introductory disclosure last month of CIA targeting French political parties and candidates in the lead up to the 2012 presidential election.
Recently, the CIA lost control of the majority of its hacking arsenal including,
  1. malware
  2. viruses
  3. trojans
  4. weaponized "zero day" exploits
  5. malware remote control systems

...and associated documentation.
This extraordinary collection, which amounts to more than several hundred million lines of code, gives its possessor the entire hacking capacity of the CIA.
The archive appears to have been circulated among former U.S. government hackers and contractors in an unauthorized manner, one of whom has provided WikiLeaks with portions of the archive.
"Year Zero" introduces the scope and direction of the CIA's global covert hacking program, its malware arsenal and dozens of "zero day" weaponized exploits against a wide range of U.S. and European company products, include,

  1. Apple's iPhone
  2. Google's Android
  3. Microsoft's Windows
  4. Samsung TVs,

...which are turned into covert microphones.
Since 2001 the CIA has gained political and budgetary preeminence over the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA).
The CIA found itself building not just its now infamous drone fleet, but a very different type of covert, globe-spanning force - its own substantial fleet of hackers.
The agency's hacking division freed it from having to disclose its often controversial operations to the NSA (its primary bureaucratic rival) in order to draw on the NSA's hacking capacities.
By the end of 2016, the CIA's hacking division, which formally falls under the agency's Center for Cyber Intelligence (CCI - below image), had over 5000 registered users and had produced more than a thousand,
hacking systems trojans viruses,
...and other "weaponized" malware.


https://preview.redd.it/3jsojkqxfdb41.jpg?width=366&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e92eafbb113ab3e972045cc242dde0f0dd511e96

Such is the scale of the CIA's undertaking that by 2016, its hackers had utilized more codes than those used to run Facebook.
The CIA had created, in effect, its "own NSA" with even less accountability and without publicly answering the question as to whether such a massive budgetary spend on duplicating the capacities of a rival agency could be justified.
In a statement to WikiLeaks the source details policy questions that they say urgently need to be debated in public, including whether the CIA's hacking capabilities exceed its mandated powers and the problem of public oversight of the agency.
The source wishes to initiate a public debate about the security, creation, use, proliferation and democratic control of cyberweapons.
Once a single cyber 'weapon' is 'loose' it can spread around the world in seconds, to be used by rival states, cyber mafia and teenage hackers alike.

Julian Assange, WikiLeaks editor stated that,
"There is an extreme proliferation risk in the development of cyber 'weapons'.
Comparisons can be drawn between the uncontrolled proliferation of such 'weapons', which results from the inability to contain them combined with their high market value, and the global arms trade.
But the significance of 'Year Zero' goes well beyond the choice between cyberwar and cyberpeace. The disclosure is also exceptional from a political, legal and forensic perspective."

Wikileaks has carefully reviewed the "Year Zero" disclosure and published substantive CIA documentation while avoiding the distribution of 'armed' cyberweapons until a consensus emerges on the technical and political nature of the CIA's program and how such 'weapons' should analyzed, disarmed and published.

Wikileaks has also decided to Redact (see far below) and Anonymize some identifying information in "Year Zero" for in depth analysis. These redactions include ten of thousands of CIA targets and attack machines throughout,
Latin America Europe the United States

While we are aware of the imperfect results of any approach chosen, we remain committed to our publishing model and note that the quantity of published pages in "Vault 7" part one ("Year Zero") already eclipses the total number of pages published over the first three years of the Edward Snowden NSA leaks.

Analysis

CIA malware targets iPhone, Android, smart TVs
CIA malware and hacking tools are built by EDG (Engineering Development Group), a software development group within CCI (Center for Cyber Intelligence), a department belonging to the CIA's DDI (Directorate for Digital Innovation).
The DDI is one of the five major directorates of the CIA (see above image of the CIA for more details).
The EDG is responsible for the development, testing and operational support of all backdoors, exploits, malicious payloads, trojans, viruses and any other kind of malware used by the CIA in its covert operations world-wide.
The increasing sophistication of surveillance techniques has drawn comparisons with George Orwell's 1984, but "Weeping Angel", developed by the CIA's Embedded Devices Branch (EDB), which infests smart TVs, transforming them into covert microphones, is surely its most emblematic realization.
The attack against Samsung smart TVs was developed in cooperation with the United Kingdom's MI5/BTSS.
After infestation, Weeping Angel places the target TV in a 'Fake-Off' mode, so that the owner falsely believes the TV is off when it is on. In 'Fake-Off' mode the TV operates as a bug, recording conversations in the room and sending them over the Internet to a covert CIA server.
As of October 2014 the CIA was also looking at infecting the vehicle control systems used by modern cars and trucks. The purpose of such control is not specified, but it would permit the CIA to engage in nearly undetectable assassinations.
The CIA's Mobile Devices Branch (MDB) developed numerous attacks to remotely hack and control popular smart phones. Infected phones can be instructed to send the CIA the user's geolocation, audio and text communications as well as covertly activate the phone's camera and microphone.
Despite iPhone's minority share (14.5%) of the global smart phone market in 2016, a specialized unit in the CIA's Mobile Development Branch produces malware to infest, control and exfiltrate data from iPhones and other Apple products running iOS, such as iPads.
CIA's arsenal includes numerous local and remote "zero days" developed by CIA or obtained from GCHQ, NSA, FBI or purchased from cyber arms contractors such as Baitshop.
The disproportionate focus on iOS may be explained by the popularity of the iPhone among social, political, diplomatic and business elites.
A similar unit targets Google's Android which is used to run the majority of the world's smart phones (~85%) including Samsung, HTC and Sony. 1.15 billion Android powered phones were sold last year.
"Year Zero" shows that as of 2016 the CIA had 24 "weaponized" Android "zero days" which it has developed itself and obtained from GCHQ, NSA and cyber arms contractors.
These techniques permit the CIA to bypass the encryption of, WhatsApp
  1. Signal
  2. Telegram
  3. Wiebo
  4. Confide
  5. Cloackman
...by hacking the "smart" phones that they run on and collecting audio and message traffic before encryption is applied.
CIA malware targets Windows, OSx, Linux, routers
The CIA also runs a very substantial effort to infect and control Microsoft Windows users with its malware.
This includes multiple local and remote weaponized "zero days", air gap jumping viruses such as "Hammer Drill" which infects software distributed on CD/DVDs, infectors for removable media such as USBs, systems to hide data in images or in covert disk areas ("Brutal Kangaroo") and to keep its malware infestations going.
Many of these infection efforts are pulled together by the CIA's Automated Implant Branch (AIB), which has developed several attack systems for automated infestation and control of CIA malware, such as "Assassin" and "Medusa".
Attacks against Internet infrastructure and webservers are developed by the CIA's Network Devices Branch (NDB).
The CIA has developed automated multi-platform malware attack and control systems covering Windows, Mac OS X, Solaris, Linux and more, such as EDB's "HIVE" and the related "Cutthroat" and "Swindle" tools, which are described in the examples section far below.
CIA 'hoarded' vulnerabilities ("zero days")
In the wake of Edward Snowden's leaks about the NSA, the U.S. technology industry secured a commitment from the Obama administration that the executive would disclose on an ongoing basis - rather than hoard - serious vulnerabilities, exploits, bugs or "zero days" to Apple, Google, Microsoft, and other US-based manufacturers.
Serious vulnerabilities not disclosed to the manufacturers places huge swathes of the population and critical infrastructure at risk to foreign intelligence or cyber criminals who independently discover or hear rumors of the vulnerability.
If the CIA can discover such vulnerabilities so can others.
The U.S. government's commitment to the Vulnerabilities Equities Process came after significant lobbying by US technology companies, who risk losing their share of the global market over real and perceived hidden vulnerabilities.
The government stated that it would disclose all pervasive vulnerabilities discovered after 2010 on an ongoing basis.
"Year Zero" documents show that the CIA breached the Obama administration's commitments. Many of the vulnerabilities used in the CIA's cyber arsenal are pervasive and some may already have been found by rival intelligence agencies or cyber criminals.
As an example, specific CIA malware revealed in "Year Zero" is able to penetrate, infest and control both the Android phone and iPhone software that runs or has run presidential Twitter accounts.
The CIA attacks this software by using undisclosed security vulnerabilities ("zero days") possessed by the CIA but if the CIA can hack these phones then so can everyone else who has obtained or discovered the vulnerability.
As long as the CIA keeps these vulnerabilities concealed from Apple and Google (who make the phones) they will not be fixed, and the phones will remain hackable.
The same vulnerabilities exist for the population at large, including the U.S. Cabinet, Congress, top CEOs, system administrators, security officers and engineers.
By hiding these security flaws from manufacturers like Apple and Google the CIA ensures that it can hack everyone at the expense of leaving everyone hackable.
'Cyberwar' programs are a serious proliferation risk
Cyber 'weapons' are not possible to keep under effective control.
While nuclear proliferation has been restrained by the enormous costs and visible infrastructure involved in assembling enough fissile material to produce a critical nuclear mass, cyber 'weapons', once developed, are very hard to retain.
Cyber 'weapons' are in fact just computer programs which can be pirated like any other. Since they are entirely comprised of information they can be copied quickly with no marginal cost.
Securing such 'weapons' is particularly difficult since the same people who develop and use them have the skills to exfiltrate copies without leaving traces - sometimes by using the very same 'weapons' against the organizations that contain them.
There are substantial price incentives for government hackers and consultants to obtain copies since there is a global "vulnerability market" that will pay hundreds of thousands to millions of dollars for copies of such 'weapons'.
Similarly, contractors and companies who obtain such 'weapons' sometimes use them for their own purposes, obtaining advantage over their competitors in selling 'hacking' services.
Over the last three years the United States intelligence sector, which consists of government agencies such as the CIA and NSA and their contractors, such as Booz Allan Hamilton, has been subject to unprecedented series of data exfiltrations by its own workers.
A number of intelligence community members not yet publicly named have been arrested or subject to federal criminal investigations in separate incidents.
Most visibly, on February 8, 2017 a U.S. federal grand jury indicted Harold T. Martin III with 20 counts of mishandling classified information.
The Department of Justice alleged that it seized some 50,000 gigabytes of information from Harold T. Martin III that he had obtained from classified programs at NSA and CIA, including the source code for numerous hacking tools.
Once a single cyber 'weapon' is 'loose' it can spread around the world in seconds, to be used by peer states, cyber mafia and teenage hackers alike.
U.S. Consulate in Frankfurt is a covert CIA hacker base
In addition to its operations in Langley, Virginia the CIA also uses the U.S. consulate in Frankfurt as a covert base for its hackers covering Europe, the Middle East and Africa.
CIA hackers operating out of the Frankfurt consulate ("Center for Cyber Intelligence Europe" or CCIE) are given diplomatic ("black") passports and State Department cover.
The instructions for incoming CIA hackers make Germany's counter-intelligence efforts appear inconsequential: "Breeze through German Customs because you have your cover-for-action story down pat, and all they did was stamp your passport" Your Cover Story (for this trip) Q: Why are you here? A: Supporting technical consultations at the Consulate. Two earlier WikiLeaks publications give further detail on CIA approaches to customs and secondary screening procedures.
Once in Frankfurt CIA hackers can travel without further border checks to the 25 European countries that are part of the Shengen open border area - including France, Italy and Switzerland.
A number of the CIA's electronic attack methods are designed for physical proximity.
These attack methods are able to penetrate high security networks that are disconnected from the internet, such as police record database. In these cases, a CIA officer, agent or allied intelligence officer acting under instructions, physically infiltrates the targeted workplace.
The attacker is provided with a USB containing malware developed for the CIA for this purpose, which is inserted into the targeted computer. The attacker then infects and exfiltrates data to removable media.
For example, the CIA attack system Fine Dining, provides 24 decoy applications for CIA spies to use.
To witnesses, the spy appears to be running a program showing videos (e.g VLC), presenting slides (Prezi), playing a computer game (Breakout2, 2048) or even running a fake virus scanner (Kaspersky, McAfee, Sophos).
But while the decoy application is on the screen, the underlying system is automatically infected and ransacked.
How the CIA dramatically increased proliferation risks
In what is surely one of the most astounding intelligence own goals in living memory, the CIA structured its classification regime such that for the most market valuable part of "Vault 7", the CIA's, weaponized malware (implants + zero days) Listening Posts (LP) Command and Control (C2) systems, ...the agency has little legal recourse.
The CIA made these systems unclassified.
Why the CIA chose to make its cyber-arsenal unclassified reveals how concepts developed for military use do not easily crossover to the 'battlefield' of cyber 'war'.
To attack its targets, the CIA usually requires that its implants communicate with their control programs over the internet.
If CIA implants, Command & Control and Listening Post software were classified, then CIA officers could be prosecuted or dismissed for violating rules that prohibit placing classified information onto the Internet.
Consequently the CIA has secretly made most of its cyber spying/war code unclassified. The U.S. government is not able to assert copyright either, due to restrictions in the U.S. Constitution.
This means that cyber 'arms' manufactures and computer hackers can freely "pirate" these 'weapons' if they are obtained. The CIA has primarily had to rely on obfuscation to protect its malware secrets.
Conventional weapons such as missiles may be fired at the enemy (i.e. into an unsecured area). Proximity to or impact with the target detonates the ordnance including its classified parts. Hence military personnel do not violate classification rules by firing ordnance with classified parts.
Ordnance will likely explode. If it does not, that is not the operator's intent.
Over the last decade U.S. hacking operations have been increasingly dressed up in military jargon to tap into Department of Defense funding streams.
For instance, attempted "malware injections" (commercial jargon) or "implant drops" (NSA jargon) are being called "fires" as if a weapon was being fired.
However the analogy is questionable.
Unlike bullets, bombs or missiles, most CIA malware is designed to live for days or even years after it has reached its 'target'. CIA malware does not "explode on impact" but rather permanently infests its target. In order to infect target's device, copies of the malware must be placed on the target's devices, giving physical possession of the malware to the target.
To exfiltrate data back to the CIA or to await further instructions the malware must communicate with CIA Command & Control (C2) systems placed on internet connected servers.
But such servers are typically not approved to hold classified information, so CIA command and control systems are also made unclassified.
A successful 'attack' on a target's computer system is more like a series of complex stock maneuvers in a hostile take-over bid or the careful planting of rumors in order to gain control over an organization's leadership rather than the firing of a weapons system.
If there is a military analogy to be made, the infestation of a target is perhaps akin to the execution of a whole series of military maneuvers against the target's territory including observation, infiltration, occupation and exploitation.
Evading forensics and anti-virus
A series of standards lay out CIA malware infestation patterns which are likely to assist forensic crime scene investigators as well as, Apple
  1. Microsoft
  2. Google
  3. Samsung
  4. Nokia
  5. Blackberry
  6. Siemens
  7. anti-virus companies,
...attribute and defend against attacks.
"Tradecraft DO's and DON'Ts" contains CIA rules on how its malware should be written to avoid fingerprints implicating the "CIA, US government, or its witting partner companies" in "forensic review".
Similar secret standards cover the, use of encryption to hide CIA hacker and malware communication (pdf) describing targets & exfiltrated data (pdf) executing payloads (pdf) persisting (pdf), ...in the target's machines over time.
CIA hackers developed successful attacks against most well known anti-virus programs.
These are documented in, AV defeats Personal Security Products Detecting and defeating PSPs PSP/DebuggeRE Avoidance For example, Comodo was defeated by CIA malware placing itself in the Window's "Recycle Bin". While Comodo 6.x has a "Gaping Hole of DOOM".
CIA hackers discussed what the NSA's "Equation Group" hackers did wrong and how the CIA's malware makers could avoid similar exposure.

Examples

The CIA's Engineering Development Group (EDG) management system contains around 500 different projects (only some of which are documented by "Year Zero") each with their own sub-projects, malware and hacker tools.
The majority of these projects relate to tools that are used for,
penetration infestation ("implanting") control exfiltration
Another branch of development focuses on the development and operation of Listening Posts (LP) and Command and Control (C2) systems used to communicate with and control CIA implants.
Special projects are used to target specific hardware from routers to smart TVs.
Some example projects are described below, but see the table of contents for the full list of projects described by WikiLeaks' "Year Zero".
UMBRAGE
The CIA's hand crafted hacking techniques pose a problem for the agency.
Each technique it has created forms a "fingerprint" that can be used by forensic investigators to attribute multiple different attacks to the same entity.
This is analogous to finding the same distinctive knife wound on multiple separate murder victims. The unique wounding style creates suspicion that a single murderer is responsible.
As soon one murder in the set is solved then the other murders also find likely attribution.
The CIA's Remote Devices Branch's UMBRAGE group collects and maintains a substantial library of attack techniques 'stolen' from malware produced in other states including the Russian Federation.
With UMBRAGE and related projects the CIA cannot only increase its total number of attack types but also misdirect attribution by leaving behind the "fingerprints" of the groups that the attack techniques were stolen from.
UMBRAGE components cover,
keyloggers
  1. password collection
  2. webcam capture
  3. data destruction
  4. persistence
  5. privilege escalation
  6. stealth
  7. anti-virus (PSP) avoidance
  8. survey techniques

Fine Dining
Fine Dining comes with a standardized questionnaire i.e menu that CIA case officers fill out.
The questionnaire is used by the agency's OSB (Operational Support Branch) to transform the requests of case officers into technical requirements for hacking attacks (typically "exfiltrating" information from computer systems) for specific operations.
The questionnaire allows the OSB to identify how to adapt existing tools for the operation, and communicate this to CIA malware configuration staff.
The OSB functions as the interface between CIA operational staff and the relevant technical support staff.
Among the list of possible targets of the collection are,
  • 'Asset'
  • 'Liason Asset'
  • 'System Administrator'
  • 'Foreign Information Operations'
  • 'Foreign Intelligence Agencies'
  • 'Foreign Government Entities'
Notably absent is any reference to extremists or transnational criminals. The 'Case Officer' is also asked to specify the environment of the target like the type of computer, operating system used, Internet connectivity and installed anti-virus utilities (PSPs) as well as a list of file types to be exfiltrated like Office documents, audio, video, images or custom file types.
The 'menu' also asks for information if recurring access to the target is possible and how long unobserved access to the computer can be maintained.
This information is used by the CIA's 'JQJIMPROVISE' software (see below) to configure a set of CIA malware suited to the specific needs of an operation.
Improvise (JQJIMPROVISE)
  1. 'Improvise' is a toolset for configuration, post-processing, payload setup and execution vector
  2. selection for survey/exfiltration tools supporting all major operating systems like,
  3. Windows (Bartender)
  4. MacOS (JukeBox)
  5. Linux (DanceFloor)
  6. Its configuration utilities like Margarita allows the NOC (Network Operation Center) to customize tools
based on requirements from 'Fine Dining' questionnaires.
HIVE
HIVE is a multi-platform CIA malware suite and its associated control software.
The project provides customizable implants for Windows, Solaris, MikroTik (used in internet routers) and Linux platforms and a Listening Post (LP)/Command and Control (C2) infrastructure to communicate with these implants.
The implants are configured to communicate via HTTPS with the webserver of a cover domain; each operation utilizing these implants has a separate cover domain and the infrastructure can handle any number of cover domains.
Each cover domain resolves to an IP address that is located at a commercial VPS (Virtual Private Server) provider.
The public-facing server forwards all incoming traffic via a VPN to a 'Blot' server that handles actual connection requests from clients.
It is setup for optional SSL client authentication: if a client sends a valid client certificate (only implants can do that), the connection is forwarded to the 'Honeycomb' toolserver that communicates with the implant.
If a valid certificate is missing (which is the case if someone tries to open the cover domain website by accident), the traffic is forwarded to a cover server that delivers an unsuspicious looking website.
The Honeycomb toolserver receives exfiltrated information from the implant; an operator can also task the implant to execute jobs on the target computer, so the toolserver acts as a C2 (command and control) server for the implant.
Similar functionality (though limited to Windows) is provided by the RickBobby project.
See the classified user and developer guides for HIVE.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why now?
WikiLeaks published as soon as its verification and analysis were ready. In February the Trump administration has issued an Executive Order calling for a "Cyberwar" review to be prepared within 30 days.
While the review increases the timeliness and relevance of the publication it did not play a role in setting the publication date.
Redactions
Names, email addresses and external IP addresses have been redacted in the released pages (70,875 redactions in total) until further analysis is complete. Over-redaction: Some items may have been redacted that are not employees, contractors, targets or otherwise related to the agency, but are, for example, authors of documentation for otherwise public projects that are used by the agency.
Identity vs. person: the redacted names are replaced by user IDs (numbers) to allow readers to assign multiple pages to a single author. Given the redaction process used a single person may be represented by more than one assigned identifier but no identifier refers to more than one real person.
Archive attachments (zip, tar.gz, ...), are replaced with a PDF listing all the file names in the archive. As the archive content is assessed it may be made available; until then the archive is redacted.
Attachments with other binary content, are replaced by a hex dump of the content to prevent accidental invocation of binaries that may have been infected with weaponized CIA malware. As the content is assessed it may be made available; until then the content is redacted.
Tens of thousands of routable IP addresses references, (including more than 22 thousand within the United States) that correspond to possible targets, CIA covert listening post servers, intermediary and test systems, are redacted for further exclusive investigation.
Binary files of non-public origin, are only available as dumps to prevent accidental invocation of CIA malware infected binaries.
Organizational Chart
The organizational chart (far above image) corresponds to the material published by WikiLeaks so far.
Since the organizational structure of the CIA below the level of Directorates is not public, the placement of the EDG and its branches within the org chart of the agency is reconstructed from information contained in the documents released so far.
It is intended to be used as a rough outline of the internal organization; please be aware that the reconstructed org chart is incomplete and that internal reorganizations occur frequently.
Wiki pages
"Year Zero" contains 7818 web pages with 943 attachments from the internal development groupware. The software used for this purpose is called Confluence, a proprietary software from Atlassian.
Webpages in this system (like in Wikipedia) have a version history that can provide interesting insights on how a document evolved over time; the 7818 documents include these page histories for 1136 latest versions.
The order of named pages within each level is determined by date (oldest first). Page content is not present if it was originally dynamically created by the Confluence software (as indicated on the re-constructed page).
What time period is covered?
The years 2013 to 2016. The sort order of the pages within each level is determined by date (oldest first).
WikiLeaks has obtained the CIA's creation/last modification date for each page but these do not yet appear for technical reasons. Usually the date can be discerned or approximated from the content and the page order.
If it is critical to know the exact time/date contact WikiLeaks.
What is "Vault 7"
"Vault 7" is a substantial collection of material about CIA activities obtained by WikiLeaks.
When was each part of "Vault 7" obtained?
Part one was obtained recently and covers through 2016. Details on the other parts will be available at the time of publication.
Is each part of "Vault 7" from a different source?
Details on the other parts will be available at the time of publication.
What is the total size of "Vault 7"?
The series is the largest intelligence publication in history.
How did WikiLeaks obtain each part of "Vault 7"?
Sources trust WikiLeaks to not reveal information that might help identify them.
Isn't WikiLeaks worried that the CIA will act against its staff to stop the series?
No. That would be certainly counter-productive.
Has WikiLeaks already 'mined' all the best stories?
No. WikiLeaks has intentionally not written up hundreds of impactful stories to encourage others to find them and so create expertise in the area for subsequent parts in the series. They're there.
Look. Those who demonstrate journalistic excellence may be considered for early access to future parts.
Won't other journalists find all the best stories before me?
Unlikely. There are very considerably more stories than there are journalists or academics who are in a position to write them.
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